Bank Swallows nest in burrows excavated into vertical banks of sand in such places as shore cliffs, eroded river banks, gravel pits and road cuts: in northern Ontario they have even used sawdust piles.
In the Old World they are known as Sand Martins. These are usually the latest of our swallows to return in spring and the earliest to leave in autumn. Our birds winter in South America.
This is the common brown-backed swallow distinguished from the relatively rare Rough-winged Swallow by its blackish band separating the white throat from the white underparts.
Rough-winged Swallows have a dingy buff throat and lack the breast band.
Dr. J. Murray Speirs